Kidney stones are small, hard deposits that can develop in the kidneys. Lithotripsy, often referred to as Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), is the most common procedure for the management of kidney stones (renal lithiasis). It uses shock waves to break up stones that form in the kidney, bladder, or ureter to enable easy passage of the fragments out of the body within the urine. Most kidney stones are quite small and can be passed in urine. However larger stones are unable to pass through the ureters and can cause bleeding, kidney damage or urinary tract infections and may require more invasive treatment.