Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the arterial wall of the blood vessels is thickened and narrowed due to the deposition of fat or cholesterol forming a plaque. The rupture of plaque leads to formation of clots in the blood vessel. These plaques and clots can restrict blood flow to the organs; especially the heart. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular diseases. The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not known, however it may start with damage to the inner layer of an artery. The damage to the arterial wall may be caused by various factors such as smoking, high levels of cholesterol in the blood, diabetes, and hypertension.